We value collaboration on national and international scale beyond CHANGE Leiden. Together we can make a difference. Learn more about the projects CHANGE Leiden participates in through consortia and collaboration. 

prosocial behavior helping sharing adolescence puberty


alcohol effects brain development adolescence

Effects of alcohol

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antisocial adolescence brain development


self concept gap year adolescence brain development

Self Concept

bullying brain development social


social competence twins brain development

Social Competence and Environment (L-CID)

Social competence and environment

~ Eveline Crone ~
Principal investigator

~ Lara Wierenga - Mara van der Meulen - Simone Dobbelaar - Lina van Drunen ~ 
Principal Investigator - Postdoc - PhD student - PhD Student

Most children develop well and find their way into society without many problems, but not all children manage to do so. We know that this difference is related to a combination of the child’s disposition and the environment in which he or she is raised. We want to understand the role of brain development herein, how children’s chances for thriving are determined by their parents, and how we can better guide children’s development.

The Leiden Consortium on Individual Development (L-CID) is an ongoing large-scale longitudinal intervention study in which 500 families with same-sex twins are followed over a six year period. L-CID was initiated at Leiden University and is now a collaborative project between Erasmus University Rotterdam (PI: Eveline Crone), Leiden University (PI: Lara Wierenga) and VU University Amsterdam (PI: Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg).  

L-CID has a cohort-sequential design with two cohorts: an early childhood cohort (ECC), aged 3-4 at wave 1, and a middle childhood cohort (MCC), aged 7-8 at wave 1. Annual assessments consist of alternating lab- or home visits during which behavioral and neurobiological data are collected. We are currently collecting data of the sixth wave of the ECC and the fifth wave of the MCC.

The collected data allows, among others, for testing which child characteristics shape the effect of (manipulated) environmental factors. The aim of L-CID is twofold:

  1. To investigate the development of social competence and behavioral control in children between 3 and 14 years old
  2. To dissect the reason why not all children are equally responsive to variations in the social environment. 

L-CID is part of the National Consortium on Individual Development (CID) which is funded by a ‘Gravity’ grant of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

Our collaborators work at the Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences at Erasmus University Rotterdam (Prof. Dr. Eveline Crone, Dr. Michelle Achterberg, Dorien Huijser) and the section Clinical Child and Development Studies at VU University Amsterdam (Prof. dr. Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, Jana Runze, Laura Kolijn). Prof. dr. Marinus van IJzendoorn is involved as scientific advisor (Cambridge University UK and Erasmus University Rotterdam).

For more information about the project, see our project website, for information on  on the national consortium CID, see CID website.

Self concept

~ Eveline Crone ~
Principal investigator

~ Sabine Peters - Laura van der Aar ~ 
Co-Promotor - PhD student

It is well known that self-concept changes dramatically during adolescence. For example, adolescents develop both more complex views of themselves as well as a heightened sensitivity to the opinions of others. These self-concept changes pose vulnerabilities as well as opportunities for adolescents. Recently, with the use of brain imaging techniques it was discovered that self-related thoughts can be robustly assessed using neural responses to self-related cues. In this project, we aim to investigate how adolescents’ self-concept development is associated with changes in functional brain development.

In the Self concept project, designed by Eveline Crone,  functional brain development is measured longitudinally in a group of 160 adolescents across the age range 11-21 years by using a cohort-sequential longitudinal design. In total, 3 waves of data collection have been completed between 2016 and 2019 and are currently analyzed. This study uses several novel paradigms and an integrative multi-method (i.e., experimental designs, self-report, biological markers and brain imaging) approach.

How adolescents view and evaluate themselves may play a role in various important life outcomes, such as the ability to choose a major in higher education that fits your identity. 

A subpart of this project examined a specific group of adolescents who experience difficulties with finding a suitable major and take a gap-year with Foundation Gap-Year in the Netherlands. During this year, they focus on personal development and start working on improving their self-esteem and decision-making skills. We followed them for 18 months between 2017 and 2019 (4 time points, two MRI) and examined changes in their self-concept and underlying neural mechanisms. We then tested whether they were able to make better suited academic decisions after their gap-year.

This project is supported by VICI grant from the Dutch Research Council (NWO), awarded to Eveline Crone.

This study is preregistered on the OSF:


~ Eveline Crone ~
Principal investigator

~ Marieke Bos

The primary aim of our Research on Individual Antisocial Trajectories (RESIST) is to gain insight into individual developmental trajectories in young adults with a history of antisocial behavior. We do this by studying several underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms.

For this project, data will be used from a unique cohort of Dutch individuals who have been arrested by the police before the age of twelve years. This cohort was followed across adolescence and will be investigated again during their current developmental phase, emerging adulthood. During the present time point of the study, we will mainly focus on the neural correlates of self-concept, aggression regulation and vicarious reward learning. Within the project, similar data will be collected within a group of individuals without a history of antisocial behavior. 

We expect to provide a better understanding of the factors that lead some adolescents to persist in and others to resists antisocial trajectories.

Our collaborators: Eveline Crone and Ilse van de Groep (Erasmus University), Arne Popma & Lucres Nauta-Jansen (VU Medical Centre), Valeria Gazzola & Eus van Someren (Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience – NIN).

This project is supported by an AMMODO grant, awarded to Eveline Crone.

RESIST is also affiliated with the work package of the NeurolabNL Start Impulse project, concerning brain development for youth with problematic antisocial behavior. 


~ Annelinde Vandenbroucke - Berna Güroğlu - Anna van Duijvenvoorde ~ 

Scientists and societal partners throughout the Netherlands are working together on the “NeurolabNL Start Impulse” project: a subsidy that has its basis in the Dutch National Research Agenda. They have 3 years to conduct the first research projects on applications of neuroscientific knowledge in education and social safety for adolescents.

The Dutch National Research Agenda is the result of almost 12,000 questions posed to science by the Dutch population. In order to answer these questions, in 2017 the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science invited three routes to set up projects on the theme Youth in a Resilient Society.

NeurolabNL is one of the routes that received a grant of 2.5 million euros to set up research on the themes of “education, safety, health and fundamental research” among adolescents. 

The CHANGE lab at Leiden University is – amongst multiple other universities, knowledge institutes and societal partners – involved in three of the four work packages. In these work packages, we look at; 

  1. The application of cognitive neuroscience to understand and enhance motivation in school
  2. The effect of bullying on brain development and the effectiveness of anti-bullying programs
  3. Brain development for youth with problematic antisocial behavior. 

The RESIST project is affiliated with the Start Impulse projects as well.


~ Eveline Crone

Principal investigator

~ Kiki Zanolie - Berna Güroğlu

Adolescence; a window of opportunity for Prosocial behavior 

One of the most important developmental goals of adolescence is forming and maintaining social relationships. Prosocial behavior, which includes helping, cooperating, and giving, is essential to accomplish this goal. To date, it remains unclear how these forms of prosocial behavior develop within individuals over the course of adolescence, both behaviorally and neurally. 

Brainlinks is a large ongoing longitudinal project designed by Eveline Crone (Erasmus SYNC lab) to gain a better understanding of age- and puberty-related change in brain function and structure related to prosocial behavior. The role of social context, individual differences, and social experiences are tested as moderating factors.

The study consists of three waves, taking place in three consecutive years (2018, 2019 and 2020) in which adolescents (aged 9-18 years in 2018) will be followed over time. A unique aspect of the Brainlinks study is that 76 parents (mothers and fathers) participated during the first wave, completing a task battery very similar to the adolescents. This gives us a unique chance to examine how parents’ (prosocial) behavior and its neural correlates are related to that of their child. 

During the Covid-19 pandemic we included an additional wave to gain insight into prosocial behavior and wellbeing during these unprecedented times.

Data for this project are collected in Leiden, as a collaboration between the Erasmus Sync lab and CHANGE lab. 

Kiki Zanolie and Berna Güroğlu collaborate with the Erasmus Sync lab on this project. They act as co- supervisors for Suzanne van de Groep and Philip Brandner on this project of which Eveline Crone is principal investigator. 

Collaborators: Eveline Crone, Eduard Klapwijk, Suzanne van de Groep, and Philip Brandner (Erasmus University Rotterdam). 

This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 681632) 

Effects of alcohol

~ Eveline Crone ~
Principal investigator

~ Sabine Peters

Together with researchers from Erasmus University Rotterdam, Free University Amsterdam and Academic Medical Center Utrecht Sabine Peters collaborated on a project funded by the Dutch Brain Foundation to study the effects of alcohol use on the developing adolescent brain.

Data from three different longitudinal studies were used in this project: Generation R (Rotterdam), Braintime (Leiden; Eveline Crone), and Brain Scale (Amsterdam / Utrecht). The three datasets are being analyzed simultaneously to investigate the possible neurocognitive changes from before the first alcohol consumption to the period following first alcohol consumption.

Collaborators: Eveline Crone, Eduard Klapwijk and Ingmar Franken (Erasmus University Rotterdam), Hilleke Hulshoff Pol (UMC Utrecht), Dorret Boomsa (VU Amsterdam), Rachel Brouwer (UMC Utrecht), Dennis van ‘t Ent (VU Amsterdam), Martijn Koevoets (UMC Utrecht), Hanan El Marroun (Erasmus University Rotterdam)

This project is supported by a grant from the Dutch Brain Foundation, awarded to Eveline Crone, Ingmar Franken, Hilleke Hulshof Pol and Dorret Boomsma.